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It's also there to allow for emergency rescues. I've heard people call this "ingress", but I refuse to use that word because it sounds made-up. It just needs to be something big enough to get people in and out. A door would be just fine. I prefer layman's terms. I'm not going to explain all of these requirements, but I'll list the basics:.

The City of Bloomington has a nice handout on Egress Requirements explaining these requirements. This handout also has some nice diagrams, which I've copied below. In my humble opinion, a home inspector doesn't need to measure a window to decide if it's safe or not. We can look at a window and decide whether or not most people could get out. In fact, most people can do this. I see no need for a home inspector to measure windows to justify recommendations for added safety.

If a window is small and someone would have a hard time getting out of the home, it's obvious. A home inspector should call this a safety hazard and recommend correction of this condition, or recommend not using the room as a bedroom. There's no need to measure the window to prove this; anyone can tell just by looking at it.

The images below show a nice example of such a room. The seller of this home was using the room as an office, not a bedroom. And by the way, the sizes listed above aren't just about getting out of a building; they're also about allowing a firefighter to get into the building while wearing a big oxygen tank. I'm not as concerned about this part of the equation.

If a building is on fire, a firefighter won't worry about delicately unlocking a window and cranking it open; they're going to knock the whole thing out of the frame. Reuben Saltzman is a second-generation home inspector with a passion for his work. Naturally, this blog is all about home inspections and home-related topics in the Twin Cities metro area. Home All Sections Search. Log In Welcome, User. Minneapolis St. After arrest in slaying of Mpls. Bahamas police were told billionaire Cline was on helicopter. Exception: The path of egress travel to an exit shall be permitted to pass through more than one adjacent story in any of the following:.

Exit access stairways serving and contained within a Group R-3 congregate residence or a Group R-4 facility. Exit access stairways and ramps in open parking garages that serve only the parking garage. Exit access stairways and ramps serving open-air assembly seating complying with the exit access travel distance requirements of Section Exit access stairways and ramps between the balcony, gallery or press box and the main assembly floor in occupancies such as theaters, places of religious worship , auditoriums and sports facilities.

Each story and occupied roof shall have the minimum number of separate and distinct exits , or access to exits , as specified in Table A single exit or access to a single exit shall be permitted in accordance with Section The required number of exits , or exit access stairways or ramps providing access to exits , from any story or occupied roof shall be maintained until arrival at the exit discharge or a public way. TABLE A single exit or access to a single exit shall be permitted from any story or occupied roof where one of the following conditions exists:.

The occupant load , number of dwelling units and common path of egress travel distance do not exceed the values in Table Rooms, areas and spaces complying with Section Parking garages where vehicles are mechanically parked shall be permitted to have one exit or access to a single exit. Group R-3 and R-4 occupancies shall be permitted to have one exit or access to a single exit. Individual single-story or multistory dwelling units shall be permitted to have a single exit or access to a single exit from the dwelling unit provided that both of the following criteria are met:.

Development of knowledge about means of egress

The dwelling unit complies with Section Buildings classified as Group R-2 equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section This table is used for R-2 occupancies consisting of dwelling units. For R-2 occupancies consisting of sleeping units , use Table Group B, F and S occupancies in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section This table is used for R-2 occupancies consisting of sleeping units. For R-2 occupancies consisting of dwelling units , use Table The length of exit access travel distance in a Group S-2 open parking garage shall be not more than feet.

Where one exit , or exit access stairway or ramp providing access to exits at other stories , is permitted to serve individual stories , mixed occupancies shall be permitted to be served by single exits provided each individual occupancy complies with the applicable requirements of Table Where applicable, cumulative occupant loads from adjacent occupancies shall be considered to be in accordance with the provisions of Section In each story of a mixed occupancy building, the maximum number of occupants served by a single exit shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the calculated number of occupants of the space divided by the allowable number of occupants indicated in Table Where dwelling units are located on a story with other occupancies, the actual number of dwelling units divided by four plus the ratio from the other occupancy does not exceed one.

Exits , exit access doorways , and exit access stairways and ramps serving spaces, including individual building stories , shall be separated in accordance with the provisions of this section. Where two exits , exit access doorways , exit access stairways or ramps , or any combination thereof, are required from any portion of the exit access , they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between them.

Interlocking or scissor stairways shall be counted as one exit stairway. Where interior exit stairways or ramps are interconnected by a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated corridor conforming to the requirements of Section , the required exit separation shall be measured along the shortest direct line of travel within the corridor. Where a building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section The separation distance required in Section The separation distance to exit or exit access doorways shall be measured to any point along the width of the doorway.

The separation distance to exit access stairways shall be measured to the closest riser. The separation distance to exit access ramps shall be measured to the start of the ramp run. Where access to three or more exits is required, not less than two exit or exit access doorways shall be arranged in accordance with the provisions of Section Additional required exit or exit access doorways shall be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes blocked, the others will be available.

Where two exit access stairways or ramps provide the required means of egress to exits at another story , the required separation distance shall be maintained for all portions of such exit access stairways or ramps. Where more than two exit access stairways or ramps provide the required means of egress , not less than two shall be arranged in accordance with Section Illumination shall be provided in the means of egress in accordance with Section Under emergency power, means of egress illumination shall comply with Section The means of egress serving a room or space shall be illuminated at all times that the room or space is occupied.

Occupancies in Group U. Aisle accessways in Group A. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-1, R-2 and R Sleeping units of Group I occupancies. The means of egress illumination level shall be not less than 1 footcandle 11 lux at the walking surface.

Externally illuminated walking surfaces shall be permitted to be illuminated to not less than 0. Steps, landings and the sides of ramps shall be permitted to be marked with self-luminous materials in accordance with Sections In Group I-2 occupancies where two or more exits are required, on the exterior landings required by Section Illumination shall be provided along the path of travel for the exit discharge from each exit to the public way.

Exception: Illumination shall not be required where the path of the exit discharge meets both of the following requirements:. The path of exit discharge is illuminated from the exit to a safe dispersal area complying with Section A dispersal area shall be illuminated to a level not less than 1 footcandle 11 lux at the walking surface. In the event of power supply failure in rooms and spaces that require two or more means of egress , an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas:.

Exit access stairways and ramps. In the event of power supply failure in buildings that require two or more means of egress , an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas:. Interior exit access stairways and ramps. Interior and exterior exit stairways and ramps.

Exit passageways. Vestibules and areas on the level of discharge used for exit discharge in accordance with Section Exterior landings as required by Section In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas:. Electrical equipment rooms. Fire command centers. Public restrooms with an area greater than square feet The emergency power system shall provide power for a duration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator.

The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Section Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is not less than an average of 1 footcandle 11 lux and a minimum at any point of 0. Illumination levels shall be permitted to decline to 0. A maximum-to-minimum illumination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded. In Group I-2 occupancies, failure of a single lamp in a luminaire shall not reduce the illumination level to less than 0. Accessible means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible means of egress.

Where more than one means of egress is required by Section One accessible means of egress is required from an accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Section In assembly areas with ramped aisles or stepped aisles , one accessible means of egress is permitted where the common path of egress travel is accessible and meets the requirements in Section Each required accessible means of egress shall be continuous to a public way and shall consist of one or more of the following components:.

Accessible routes complying with Section Interior exit stairways complying with Sections Exit access stairways complying with Sections Exterior exit stairways complying with Sections Elevators complying with Section Platform lifts complying with Section Horizontal exits complying with Section Ramps complying with Section Areas of refuge complying with Section Exterior areas for assisted rescue complying with Section In buildings where a required accessible floor is four or more stories above or below a level of exit discharge , not less than one required accessible means of egress shall be an elevator complying with Section In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section In order to be considered part of an accessible means of egress , a stairway between stories shall comply with Sections Exit access stairways that connect levels in the same story are not permitted as part of an accessible means of egress.

Exception: Exit access stairways providing means of egress from mezzanines are permitted as part of an accessible means of egress. Stairways shall have a clear width of 48 inches mm minimum between handrails. The clear width of 48 inches mm between handrails is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section The clear width of 48 inches mm between handrails is not required for stairways accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit.

Stairways shall either incorporate an area of refuge within an enlarged floor-level landing or shall be accessed from an area of refuge complying with Section Areas of refuge are not required at exit access stairways where two-way communication is provided at the elevator landing in accordance with Section Areas of refuge are not required at stairways in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section Areas of refuge are not required at stairways serving open parking garages.

Areas of refuge are not required for smoke-protected or open-air assembly seating areas complying with Sections Areas of refuge are not required at stairways in Group R-2 occupancies. Areas of refuge are not required for stairways accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit. In order to be considered part of an accessible means of egress , an elevator shall comply with Sections The elevator shall meet the emergency operation and signaling device requirements of Section 2.

Standby power shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 27 and Section The elevator shall be accessed from an area of refuge complying with Section Areas of refuge are not required at the elevator in open parking garages. Areas of refuge are not required in buildings and facilities equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section Areas of refuge are not required at elevators not required to be located in a shaft in accordance with Section Areas of refuge are not required at elevators serving smoke-protected or open-air assembly seating areas complying with Sections Areas of refuge are not required for elevators accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit.

Platform lifts shall be permitted to serve as part of an accessible means of egress where allowed as part of a required accessible route in Section Standby power for the platform lift shall be provided in accordance with Chapter Every required area of refuge shall be accessible from the space it serves by an accessible means of egress. The maximum travel distance from any accessible space to an area of refuge shall not exceed the exit access travel distance permitted for the occupancy in accordance with Section Every required area of refuge shall have direct access to a stairway complying with Sections Each area of refuge shall be sized to accommodate one wheelchair space of 30 inches by 48 inches mm by mm for each occupants or portion thereof, based on the occupant load of the area of refuge and areas served by the area of refuge.

Such wheelchair spaces shall not reduce the means of egress minimum width or required capacity. Access to any of the required wheelchair spaces in an area of refuge shall not be obstructed by more than one adjoining wheelchair space. Each area of refuge shall be separated from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier complying with Section or a horizontal exit complying with Section Each area of refuge shall be designed to minimize the intrusion of smoke.

Areas of refuge located within an enclosure for interior exit stairways complying with Section Areas of refuge in outdoor facilities where exit access is essentially open to the outside. Areas of refuge shall be provided with a two-way communication system complying with Sections Exterior areas for assisted rescue shall be accessed by an accessible route from the area served. Where the exit discharge does not include an accessible route from an exit located on the level of exit discharge to a public way , an exterior area of assisted rescue shall be provided on the exterior landing in accordance with Sections Each exterior area for assisted rescue shall be sized to accommodate wheelchair spaces in accordance with Section Exterior walls separating the exterior area of assisted rescue from the interior of the building shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 1 hour, rated for exposure to fire from the inside.

The fire-resistance-rated exterior wall construction shall extend horizontally not less than 10 feet mm beyond the landing on either side of the landing or equivalent fire-resistance-rated construction is permitted to extend out perpendicular to the exterior wall not less than 4 feet mm on the side of the landing. The fire-resistance-rated construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point not less than 10 feet mm above the floor level of the area for assisted rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower. Openings within such fire-resistance-rated exterior walls shall be protected in accordance with Section Exception: The fire-resistance rating and opening protectives are not required in the exterior wall where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section The exterior area for assisted rescue shall be open to the outside air.

The sides other than the separation walls shall be not less than 50 percent open, and the open area shall be distributed so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases. Stairways that are part of the means of egress for the exterior area for assisted rescue shall provide a minimum clear width of 48 inches mm between handrails.

Exception: The minimum clear width of 48 inches mm between handrails is not required at stairways serving buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section A two-way communication system complying with Sections Two-way communication systems are not required at the landing serving each elevator or bank of elevators where the two-way communication system is provided within areas of refuge in accordance with Section Two-way communication systems are not required on floors provided with ramps conforming to the provisions of Section Two-way communication systems are not required at the landings serving only service elevators that are not designated as part of the accessible means of egress or serve as part of the required accessible route into a facility.


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Two-way communication systems are not required at the landings serving only freight elevators. Two-way communication systems are not required at the landing serving a private residence elevator. Two-way communication systems are not required in Group I-2 or I-3 facilities. Two-way communication systems shall provide communication between each required location and the fire command center or a central control point location approved by the fire department.

Where the central control point is not a constantly attended location , a two-way communication system shall have a timed automatic telephone dial-out capability to a monitoring location or The two-way communication system shall include both audible and visible signals. Directions for the use of the two-way communication system, instructions for summoning assistance via the two-way communication system and written identification of the location shall be posted adjacent to the two-way communication system. Signage shall comply with the ICC A Signage indicating special accessibility provisions shall be provided as shown:.

Where exit sign illumination is required by Section Additionally, visual characters, raised character and braille signage complying with ICC A Directional signage indicating the location of all other means of egress and which of those are accessible means of egress shall be provided at the following:.

At exits serving a required accessible space but not providing an approved accessible means of egress. At elevator landings. Within areas of refuge. In areas of refuge and exterior areas for assisted rescue, instructions on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be posted. The instructions shall include all of the following:. Persons able to use the exit stairway do so as soon as possible, unless they are assisting others. Information on planned availability of assistance in the use of stairs or supervised operation of elevators and how to summon such assistance.

Directions for use of the two-way communication system where provided. Means of egress doors shall meet the requirements of this section. Doors serving a means of egress system shall meet the requirements of this section and Section Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than required by this code shall meet the requirements of this section. Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are easily recognizable as doors.

Mirrors or similar reflecting materials shall not be used on means of egress doors.

Means of egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decorations or similar materials. The required capacity of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches mm. The clear opening width of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees 1. Where this section requires a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches mm and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches mm.

The maximum width of a swinging door leaf shall be 48 inches mm nominal. The minimum clear opening height of doors shall be not less than 80 inches mm. In Group R-2 and R-3 dwelling and sleeping units that are not required to be an Accessible unit, Type A unit or Type B unit, the minimum and maximum width shall not apply to door openings that are not part of the required means of egress. In Group I-3, door openings to resident sleeping units that are not required to be an Accessible unit shall have a minimum clear opening width of 28 inches mm.

Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square feet 0. The width of door leaves in revolving doors that comply with Section The maximum width of door leaves in power-operated doors that comply with Section Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall have a minimum clear opening height of 78 inches mm. In dwelling and sleeping units that are not required to be Accessible, Type A or Type B units, exterior door openings other than the required exit door shall have a minimum clear opening height of 76 inches mm. In Groups I-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4, in dwelling and sleeping units that are not required to be Accessible, Type A or Type B units, the minimum clear opening widths shall not apply to interior egress doors.

Door openings required to be accessible within Type B units intended for user passage shall have a minimum clear opening width of Doors to walk-in freezers and coolers less than 1, square feet 93 m 2 in area shall have a maximum width of 60 inches mm nominal. The minimum clear opening width shall not apply to doors for nonaccessible shower or sauna compartments.

The minimum clear opening width shall not apply to the doors for nonaccessible toilet stalls. There shall not be projections into the required clear opening width lower than 34 inches mm above the floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 34 inches mm and 80 inches mm above the floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches mm. Exception: Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches mm minimum above the floor. Egress doors shall be of the pivoted or side-hinged swinging type.

Private garages, office areas, factory and storage areas with an occupant load of 10 or less. Group I-3 occupancies used as a place of detention. Critical or intensive care patient rooms within suites of health care facilities. Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in Groups R-2 and R In other than Group H occupancies, revolving doors complying with Section In other than Group H occupancies, special purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies complying with Section Power-operated doors in accordance with Section Doors serving a bathroom within an individual sleeping unit in Group R In other than Group H occupancies, manually operated horizontal sliding doors are permitted in a means of egress from spaces with an occupant load of 10 or less.

Pivot or side-hinged swinging doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where serving a room or area containing an occupant load of 50 or more persons or a Group H occupancy. The force for pushing or pulling open interior swinging egress doors, other than fire doors, shall not exceed 5 pounds 22 N. These forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch bolts or disengage other devices that hold the door in a closed position.

For other swinging doors, as well as sliding and folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a pound 67 N force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a pound N force. The door shall swing to a full-open position when subjected to a pound 67 N force. Forces shall be applied to the latch side of the door. Special doors and security grilles shall comply with the requirements of Sections A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet mm of the foot or top of stairways or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairways or escalators and the revolving doors.

The revolutions per minute rpm for a revolving door shall not exceed the maximum rpm as specified in BHMA A Manual revolving doors shall comply with Table Automatic or power-operated revolving doors shall comply with Table An emergency stop switch shall be provided near each entry point of power or automatic operated revolving doors within 48 inches mm of the door and between 24 inches mm and 48 inches mm above the floor.

The activation area of the emergency stop switch button shall be not less than 1 inch 25 mm in diameter and shall be red. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged swinging door that complies with Section Revolving doors shall not be part of an accessible route required by Section and Chapter A revolving door used as a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 50 percent of the minimum width or required capacity.

Each revolving door shall be credited with a capacity based on not more than a person occupant load. A revolving door used as other than a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section The breakout force of a revolving door not used as a component of a means of egress shall not be more than pounds N. Exception: A breakout force in excess of pounds N is permitted if the breakout force is reduced to not more than pounds N when not less than one of the following conditions is satisfied:.

There is a power failure or power is removed to the device holding the door wings in position. There is an actuation of the automatic sprinkler system where such system is provided. There is an actuation of a smoke detection system that is installed in accordance with Section to provide coverage in areas within the building that are within 75 feet 22 mm of the revolving doors. There is an actuation of a manual control switch, in an approved location and clearly identified, that reduces the breakout force to not more than pounds N.

Where means of egress doors are operated or assisted by power, the design shall be such that in the event of power failure, the door is capable of being opened manually to permit means of egress travel or closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. The forces required to open these doors manually shall not exceed those specified in Section The door shall be capable of opening from any position to the full width of the opening in which such door is installed when a force is applied to the door on the side from which egress is made. Power-operated swinging doors, power-operated sliding doors and power-operated folding doors shall comply with BHMA A Power-assisted swinging doors and low-energy power-operated swinging doors shall comply with BHMA A Low-energy power-operated sliding doors and low-energy power-operated folding doors shall comply with BHMA A Occupancies in Group I Special purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding doors complying with Section For a biparting door in the emergency breakout mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf opening shall be exempt from the minimum inch mm single-leaf requirement of Section In other than Group H occupancies, special purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies permitted to be a component of a means of egress in accordance with Exception 6 to Section The doors shall be power operated and shall be capable of being operated manually in the event of power failure.

The doors shall be openable by a simple method from both sides without special knowledge or effort. The force required to operate the door shall not exceed 30 pounds N to set the door in motion and 15 pounds 67 N to close the door or open it to the minimum required width. The door shall be openable with a force not to exceed 15 pounds 67 N when a force of pounds N is applied perpendicular to the door adjacent to the operating device. The door assembly shall comply with the applicable fire protection rating and, where rated, shall be self-closing or automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section The door assembly shall have an integrated standby power supply.

The door assembly power supply shall be electrically supervised. The door shall open to the minimum required width within 10 seconds after activation of the operating device. In Group E and Group B educational occupancies, egress doors from classrooms, offices and other occupied rooms shall be permitted to be provided with locking arrangements designed to keep intruders from entering the room where all of the following conditions are met:.

The door shall be capable of being unlocked from outside the room with a key or other approved means. The door shall be openable from within the room in accordance with Section Modifications shall not be made to listed panic hardware , fire door hardware or door closers. Remote operation of locks complying with Section In Groups B, F, M and S, horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permitted at the main exit and shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort during periods that the space is occupied.

The grilles shall remain secured in the full-open position during the period of occupancy by the general public. Where two or more means of egress are required, not more than one-half of the exits or exit access doorways shall be equipped with horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles. There shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the same elevation on each side of the door.

Landings shall be level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to have a slope not to exceed 0. Doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 where the following apply:. A door is permitted to open at the top step of an interior flight of stairs, provided that the door does not swing over the top step. Screen doors and storm doors are permitted to swing over stairs or landings.

Exterior doors as provided for in Section Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of Type B dwelling units , have impervious surfaces and that are not more than 4 inches mm below the finished floor level of the adjacent interior space of the dwelling unit. Doors serving equipment spaces not required to be accessible in accordance with Section Landings shall have a width not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever is greater.

Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a required dimension by more than 7 inches mm. Protruding objects shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section The number of exits or exit access doorways required within the means of egress system shall comply with the provisions of Section Rooms, areas or spaces, including mezzanines, within a story or basement shall be provided with the number of exits or access to exits in accordance with this section.

Two exits or exit access doorways from any space shall be provided where the design occupant load or the common path of egress travel distance exceeds the values listed in Table In Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, one means of egress is permitted within and from individual dwelling units with a maximum occupant load of 20 where the dwelling unit is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section Three exits or exit access doorways shall be provided from any space with an occupant load of to 1, Four exits or exit access doorways shall be provided from any space with an occupant load greater than 1, The numbers of exits or access to exits shall be provided in the uses described in Sections Two exit access doorways are required in boiler, incinerator and furnace rooms where the area is over square feet 46 m 2 and any fuel-fired equipment exceeds , British thermal units Btu KJ input capacity.

Where two exit access doorways are required, one is permitted to be a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the room. Machinery rooms larger than 1, square feet 93 m 2 shall have not less than two exits or exit access doorways. Where two exit access doorways are required, one such doorway is permitted to be served by a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of the room.

All portions of machinery rooms shall be within feet 45 mm of an exit or exit access doorway.


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  5. An increase in exit access travel distance is permitted in accordance with Section Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel, regardless of the occupant load served. Doors shall be tight fitting and self-closing. Exit access travel distance shall be determined as specified in Section Egress is allowed through adjoining refrigerated rooms or spaces. Exception: Where using refrigerants in quantities limited to the amounts based on the volume set forth in the Mechanical code.

    Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section See Section for occupancies where automatic sprinkler systems are permitted in accordance with Section Group H occupancies equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section For a room or space used for assembly purposes having fixed seating, see Section The length of common path of egress travel distance in a Group R-3 occupancy located in a mixed occupancy building or within a Group R-3 or R-4 congregate living facility. The length of common path of egress travel distance in a Group S-2 open parking garage shall be not more than feet.

    For the travel distance limitations in Group R-3 and R-4 equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section Vehicular ramps shall not be considered as an exit access ramp unless pedestrian facilities are provided. Where Group R-3 occupancies are permitted by Section Where Group R-4 occupancies are permitted by Section Exit access shall be provided from electrical equipment workspaces as follows: 1. Electrical workspaces with equipment rated amperes or more. Electrical workspaces having electrical equipment rated amperes or more and over 6 ft 1.

    The exit access openings shall be at least 24 inches mm wide and 6. A single exit access opening from the required working space shall be permitted where access to the opening is continuous and unobstructed or where extra working space is provided in accordance with Article Where an exit access doorway is provided and the door is located less than 25 ft 7. Where an exit access doorway s is provided and is located less than 25 ft 7. Exit access doorways shall be provided from elevator machine rooms and control rooms when required by Section 2. The means of egress system serving any story or occupied roof shall be provided with the number of exits or access to exits based on the aggregate occupant load served in accordance with this section.

    The path of egress travel to an exit shall not pass through more than one adjacent story. Each story and occupied roof shall have the minimum number of independent exits, or access to exits, as specified in Table A single exit or access to a single exit shall be permitted in accordance with Section The required number of exits, or exit access stairways or ramps providing access to exits, from any story or occupied roof shall be maintained until arrival at the exit discharge or a public way. A single exit or access to a single exit shall be permitted from any story or occupied roof where one of the following conditions exists: 1.

    The occupant load, number of dwelling units and common path of egress travel distance does not exceed the values in Table Rooms, areas and spaces complying with Section Parking garages where vehicles are mechanically parked shall be permitted to have one exit or access to a single exit. Group R-3 and R-4 occupancies shall be permitted to have one exit or access to a single exit. Individual single-story or multistory dwelling units shall be permitted to have a single exit or access to a single exit from the dwelling unit provided that both of the following criteria are met: 5.

    The dwelling unit complies with Section Either the exit from the dwelling unit discharges directly to the exterior at the level of exit discharge, or the exit access outside the dwelling unit's entrance door provides access to not less than two approved independent exits. Where one exit, or exit access stairway or ramp providing access to exits at other stories, is permitted to serve individual stories, mixed occupancies shall be permitted to be served by single exits provided each individual occupancy complies with the applicable requirements of Table Where applicable, cumulative occupant loads from adjacent provisions of Section In each story of a mixed occupancy building, the maximum number of occupants served by a single exit shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the calculated number of occupants of the space divided by the allowable number of occupants indicated in Table Where dwelling units are located on a story with other occupancies, the actual number of dwelling units divided by four plus the ratio from the other occupancy does not exceed one.

    Except as otherwise provided in Section This table is used for R-2 occupancies consisting of dwelling units. For R-2 occupancies consisting of sleeping units, use Table Group B, F and S occupancies in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section This table is used for R-2 occupancies consisting of sleeping units.

    For R-2 occupancies consisting of dwelling units, use Table The length of exit access travel distance in a Group S-2 open parking garage shall be not more than feet. Exits, exit access doorways, and exit access stairways and ramps serving spaces, including individual building stories, shall be separated in accordance with the provisions of this section.

    Where two exits, exit access doorways, exit access stairways or ramps, or any combination thereof, are required from any portion of the exit access, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between them.

    Interlocking or scissor stairways shall be counted as one exit stairway. Where interior exit stairways or ramps are interconnected by a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated corridor conforming to the requirements of Section , the required exit separation shall be measured along the shortest direct line of travel with the within the corridor. Where a building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section The separation distance required in Section The separation distance to exit or exit access doorways shall be measured to any point along the width of the doorway.

    The separation distance to exit access stairways shall be measured to the closest riser. The separation distance to exit access ramps shall be measured to the start of the ramp run. Where access to three or more exits is required, not less than two exit or exit access doorways shall be arranged in accordance with the provisions of Section Additional required exit or exit access doorways shall be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes blocked, the others will be available.

    Where two exit access stairways or ramps provide the required means of egress to exits at another story, the required separation distance shall be maintained for all portions of such exit access stairways or ramps. Where more than two exit access stairways or ramps provide the required means of egress, not less than two shall be arranged in accordance with Section Illumination shall be provided in the means of egress in accordance with Section Under emergency power, means of egress illumination shall comply with Section The means of egress serving a room or space shall be illuminated at all times that the room or space is occupied.

    The means of egress illumination level shall be not less than 1 footcandle 11 lux at the walking surface. Exception: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the walking surface is permitted to be reduced during performances by one of the following methods provided that the required illumination is automatically restored upon activation of a premises' fire alarm system:. Externally illuminated walking surfaces shall be permitted to be illuminated to not less than 0. Steps, landings and the sides of ramps shall be permitted to be marked with self-luminous materials in accordance with Sections In Group I-2 occupancies where two or more exits are required, on the exterior landings required by Section The power supply for means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the premises' electrical supply.

    In the event of power supply failure in rooms and spaces that require two or more means of egress, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas: 1. In the event of power supply failure in buildings that require two or more means of egress, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas: 1. Interior exit access stairways and ramps. Vestibules and areas on the level of discharge used for exit discharge in accordance with Section Exterior landings as required by Section In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas: 1.

    Electrical equipment rooms. The emergency power system shall provide power for a duration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Section Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is not less than an average of 1 footcandle 11 lux and a minimum at any point of 0.

    Illumination levels shall be permitted to decline to 0.

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    A maximum-to-minimum illumination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded. In Group I-2 occupancies, failure of any single lighting unit shall not reduce the illumination level to less than 0. Accessible means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible means of egress. Where more than one means of egress are required by Section One accessible means of egress is required from an accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Section In assembly areas with ramped aisles or stepped aisles, one accessible means of egress is permitted where the common path of egress travel is accessible and meets the requirements in Section Each required accessible means of egress shall be continuous to a public way and shall consist of one or more of the following components: 1.

    Accessible routes complying with Section Exterior exit stairways complying with Sections Exterior areas for assisted rescue complying with Section In buildings where a required accessible floor is four or more stories above or below a level of exit discharge, not less than one required accessible means of egress shall be an elevator complying with Section In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section In order to be considered part of an accessible means of egress, a stairway between stories shall have a clear width of 48 inches mm minimum between handrails and shall either incorporate an area of refuge within an enlarged floor-level landing or shall be accessed from an area of refuge complying with Section Exit access stairways that connect levels in the same story are not permitted as part of an accessible means of egress.

    Exit access stairways providing means of egress from mezzanines are permitted as part of an accessible means of egress. The clear width of 48 inches mm between handrails is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section The clear width of 48 inches mm between handrails is not required for stairways accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit. Areas of refuge are not required at exit access stairways where two-way communication is provided at the elevator landing in accordance with Section Areas of refuge are not required at stairways in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section Areas of refuge are not required for smoke-protected assembly seating areas complying with Section Areas of refuge are not required for stairways accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit.

    In order to be considered part of an accessible means of egress, an elevator shall comply with the emergency operation and signaling device requirements of Section 2. Standby power shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 27 and Section The elevator shall be accessed from an area of refuge complying with Section Areas of refuge are not required in buildings and facilities equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section Areas of refuge are not required at elevators not required to be located in a shaft in accordance with Section Areas of refuge are not required at elevators serving smoke-protected assembly seating areas complying with Section Areas of refuge are not required for elevators accessed from a refuge area in conjunction with a horizontal exit.

    Platform lifts shall be permitted to serve as part of an accessible means of egress where allowed as part of a required accessible route in Section Standby power for the platform lift shall be provided in accordance with Chapter Every required area of refuge shall be accessible from the space it serves by an accessible means of egress. The maximum travel distance from any accessible space to an area of refuge shall not exceed the exit access travel distance permitted for the occupancy in accordance with Section Every required area of refuge shall have direct access to a stairway complying with Sections Each area of refuge shall be sized to accommodate one wheelchair space of 30 inches by 48 inches mm by mm for each occupants or portion thereof, based on the occupant load of the area of refuge and areas served by the area of refuge.

    Such wheelchair spaces shall not reduce the means of egress minimum width or required capacity. Access to any of the required wheelchair spaces in an area of refuge shall not be obstructed by more than one adjoining wheelchair space. Each area of refuge shall be separated from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier complying with Section or a horizontal exit complying with Section Each area of refuge shall be designed to minimize the intrusion of smoke.

    Areas of refuge located within an enclosure for interior exit stairways complying with Section Areas of refuge in outdoor facilities where exit access is essentially open to the outside.

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    Areas of refuge shall be provided with a two-way communication system complying with Sections Exterior areas for assisted rescue shall be accessed by an accessible route from the area served. Where the exit discharge does not include an accessible route from an exit located on the level of exit discharge to a public way, an exterior area of assisted rescue shall be provided on the exterior landing in accordance with Sections Each exterior area for assisted rescue shall be sized to accommodate wheelchair spaces in accordance with Section Exterior walls separating the exterior area of assisted rescue from the interior of the building shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 1 hour, rated for exposure to fire from the inside.

    The fire-resistance-rated exterior wall construction shall extend horizontally 10 feet mm beyond the landing on either side of the landing or equivalent fire-resistance-rated construction is permitted to extend out perpendicular to the exterior wall 4 feet mm minimum on the side of the landing. The fire-resistance-rated construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point 10 feet mm above the floor level of the area for assisted rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower.

    Openings within such fire-resistance-rated exterior walls shall be protected in accordance with Section The exterior area for assisted rescue shall be open to the outside air. The sides other than the separation walls shall be not less than 50 percent open, and the open area shall be distributed so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.

    Stairways that are part of the means of egress for the exterior area for assisted rescue shall provide a clear width of 48 inches mm between handrails. Exception: The clear width of 48 inches mm between handrails is not required at stairways serving buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section A two-way communication system complying with Sections Two-way communication systems are not required at the landing serving each elevator or bank of elevators where the two-way communication system is provided within areas of refuge in accordance with Section Two-way communication systems are not required on floors provided with ramps conforming to the provisions of Section Two-way communication systems are not required at the landings serving only service elevators that are not designated as part of the accessible means of egress or serve as part of the required accessible route into a facility.

    Two-way communication systems are not required at the landings serving only freight elevators. Two-way communication systems are not required at the landing serving a private residence elevator. Two-way communication systems shall provide communication between each required location and the fire command center or a central control point location approved by the fire department. Where the central control point is not a constantly attended location, a two-way communication system shall have a timed automatic telephone dial-out capability to a monitoring location or The two-way communication system shall include both audible and visible signals.

    Directions for the use of the two-way communication system, instructions for summoning assistance via the two-way communication system and written identification of the location shall be posted adjacent to the two-way communication system. Signage shall comply with the ICC A Signage indicating special accessibility provisions shall be provided as shown: 1. Where exit sign illumination is required by Section Additionally, visual characters, raised character and braille signage complying with ICC A Directional signage indicating the location of all other means of egress and which of those are accessible means of egress shall be provided at the following: 1.

    At exits serving a required accessible space but not providing an approved accessible means of egress. In areas of refuge and exterior areas for assisted rescue, instructions on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be posted. The instructions shall include all of the following: 1. Persons able to use the exit stairway do so as soon as possible, unless they are assisting others.

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    Information on planned availability of assistance in the use of stairs or supervised operation of elevators and how to summon such assistance. Means of egress doors shall meet the requirements of this section. Doors serving a means of egress system shall meet the requirements of this section and Section Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than required by this code shall meet the requirements of this section.

    Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decorations or similar materials. The required capacity of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a minimum clear width of 32 inches mm. Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees 1.

    Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 32 inches mm and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 32 inches mm. The maximum width of a swinging door leaf shall be 48 inches mm nominal. The height of door openings shall be not less than 80 inches mm. The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to door openings that are not part of the required means of egress in Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies.

    Door openings to resident sleeping units not required to be accessible, in Group I-3 occupancies shall have a clear width of not less than 28 inches mm. Door openings to reach in storage closets less than 10 square feet 0. Width of door leaves in revolving doors that comply with Section Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall be not less than 78 inches mm in height.

    Exterior door openings in dwelling units and sleeping units, other than the required exit door, shall be not less than 76 inches mm in height. In other than Group R-1 occupancies, the minimum widths shall not apply to interior egress doors within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit that is not required to be an Accessible unit, Type A unit or Type B unit.

    Door openings required to be accessible within Type B units shall have a minimum clear width of Doors to walk-in freezers and coolers less than 1, square feet 93 m 2 in area shall have a maximum width of 60 inches mm. In Group R-1 dwelling units or sleeping units not required to be Accessible units, the minimum width shall not apply to doors for showers or saunas. There shall not be projections into the required clear width lower than 34 inches mm above the floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 34 inches mm and 80 inches mm above the floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches mm.

    Exception: Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches mm minimum above the floor. Egress doors shall be of the pivoted or side-hinged swinging type. Private garages, office areas, factory and storage areas with an occupant load of 10 or less. In other than Group H occupancies, revolving doors complying with Section In other than Group H occupancies, special purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies complying with Section In other than Group H occupancies, manually operated horizontal sliding doors are permitted in a means of egress from spaces with an occupant load of 10 or less.

    Pivot or side-hinged swinging doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where serving a room or area containing an occupant load of 50 or more persons or a Group H occupancy. The force for pushing or pulling open interior swinging egress doors, other than fire doors, shall not exceed 5 pounds 22 N. These forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch bolts or disengage other devices that hold the door in a closed position. For other swinging doors, as well as sliding and folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a pound 67 N force.

    The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a pound N force. The door shall swing to a full-open position when subjected to a 15pound 67 N force. Forces shall be applied to the latch side of the door. Special doors and security grilles shall comply with the requirements of Sections Revolving doors shall comply with the following: 1.

    A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet mm of the foot or top of stairways or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairways or escalators and the revolving doors. The revolutions per minute rpm for a revolving door shall not exceed the maximum rpm as specified in BHMA A Manual revolving doors shall comply with Table Automatic or power-operated revolving doors shall comply with Table An emergency stop switch shall be provided near each entry point of power or automatically operated revolving doors within 48 inches mm of the door and between 24 inches mm and 48 inches mm above the floor.

    The activation area of the emergency stop switch button shall be not less than 1 inch 25 mm in diameter and shall be red. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged swinging door that complies with Section Revolving doors shall not be part of an accessible route required by Section and Chapter A revolving door used as a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 50 percent of the minimum width or required capacity.

    Each revolving door shall be credited with a capacity based on not more than a person occupant load. A revolving door used as other than a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section The breakout force of a revolving door not used as a component of a means of egress shall not be more than pounds N.

    Exception: A breakout force in excess of pounds N is permitted if the collapsing force is reduced to not more than pounds N when not less than one of the following conditions is satisfied:. There is a power failure or power is removed to the device holding the door wings in position. There is an actuation of a smoke detection system that is installed in accordance with Section to provide coverage in areas within the building that are within 75 feet 22 mm of the revolving doors.

    There is an actuation of a manual control switch, in an approved location and clearly identified, that reduces the breakout force to not more than pounds N. Where means of egress doors are operated or assisted by power, the design shall be such that in the event of power failure, the door is capable of being opened manually to permit means of egress travel or closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress.

    The forces required to open these doors manually shall not exceed those specified in Section The door shall be capable of swinging open from any position to the full width of the opening in which such door is installed when a force is applied to the door on the side from which egress is made. Power-operated swinging doors, power-operated sliding doors and power operated folding doors shall comply with BHMA A Power-assisted swinging doors and low energy power-operated swinging doors shall comply with BHMA A For a biparting door in the emergency breakout mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf opening shall be exempt from the minimum inch mm single-leaf requirement of Section In other than Group H occupancies, special purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies permitted to be a component of a means of egress in accordance with Exception 6 to Section The doors shall be power operated and shall be capable of being operated manually in the event of power failure.

    The doors shall be openable by a simple method from both sides without special knowledge or effort. The force required to operate the door shall not exceed 30 pounds N to set the door in motion and 15 pounds 67 N to close the door or open it to the minimum required width. The door shall be openable with a force not to exceed 15 pounds 67 N when a force of pounds N is applied perpendicular to the door adjacent to the operating device.

    The door assembly shall comply with the applicable fire protection rating and, where rated, shall be self-closing or automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section The door shall open to the minimum required width within 10 seconds after activation of the operating device. In Groups B, F, M and S, horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permitted at the main exit and shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort during periods that the space is occupied.

    The grilles shall remain secured in the full-open position during the period of occupancy by the general public. Where two or more means of egress are required, not more than one-half of the exits or exit access doorways shall be equipped with horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles. There shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to have a slope not to exceed 0.

    Doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 where the following apply: 1. A door is permitted to open at the top step of an interior flight of stairs, provided the door does not swing over the top step. Exterior doors as provided for in Section Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of Type B dwelling units, have impervious surfaces and that are not more than 4 inches mm below the finished floor level of the adjacent interior space of the dwelling unit.

    Doors serving equipment spaces not required to be accessible in accordance with Section Landings shall have a width not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever is greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a required dimension by more than 7 inches mm.